Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds or "beans", are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea.
The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the "robusta" form of the hardier Coffea canephora.
The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried.
The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee.
Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.
An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004,and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural
export by value in 2005.
Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.