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Yellow Corn is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of Yellow Corn is produced each year than any other grain. The United States produces 40% of the world's harvest; other top producing countries include China, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France and Argentina. Worldwide production was 817 million tonnes in 2010 more than rice (678 million tonnes) or wheat (682 million tonnes). In 2010, over 159 million hectares (390 million acres) of Yellow Corn were planted worldwide, with a yield of over 5 tonnes/hectare (80 bu/acre). Production can be significantly higher in certain regions of the world; 2009 forecasts for production in Iowa were 11614 kg/ha (185 bu/acre). There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that Yellow Corn yield potential has increased over the past few decades. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant.

"Feed Yellow Corn" is being used increasingly for heating; specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed Yellow Corn or wood pellets to generate heat. Yellow Corn cobs are also used as a biomass fuel source. Yellow Corn is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use Yellow Corn kernels as a fuel. They feature a large hopper that feeds the uniformly sized Yellow Corn kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire.

Yellow Corn is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel. Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel prices in mid 2010 led to higher demand for ethanol, which in turn lead to higher prices paid to farmers for Yellow Corn. This led to the 2010 harvest being one of the most profitable Yellow Corn crops in modern history for farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and Yellow Corn, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil.

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